The goal of this theory is to prove that the universe is one and infinite, as well as proving the cosmic background radiation’s redshifting. As of today, it is just an idea until I have the time and tools to do the related math. I tried to use simple reasoning to ease understanding, my own, which later, when doing the math, might be not that simple to demonstrate. Nevertheless, this paper is just the starting point of another theory, thus, its proof will come, hopefully true, later in time.
Before starting the development of the theory, let’s set the three hypothesis needed as a start point:
Hypothesis 1: The Bigbang theory is true and the universe is expanding.
Hypothesis 2: The universe is limited and enclosed with boundaries.
Hypothesis 3: There are more, unknown number of, “parallel” universes out there.
We assume that the Bigbang theory is true, thus there was a beginning of the “known” universe, that beginning should have a specific instant in time as well as a position. From that moment on, the universe has been expanding, subject to cosmic inflation.
Case 1: Single limited universe with boundary
In this situation (Img. 1), there is one, and only one, universe. This universe has a center (Uc), has its boundary (Ub), has its expansion velocity (Ve), and has its expansion pressure on its boundary (Pe). We, the Milky Way (mw) are located somewhere in that universe. As we assume only one universe, what lies beyond the boundary can be called nothing, ether, or just not universe, as opposite to the actual universe. Actually there is no need to think that outside the universe boundary there is anything, but let’s accept that there is something that is yet unknown.
We assume that the universe is spherical, the big bang explosion sends matter in all directions of space, and as long as there is not an opposite force of any kind that balances the expansion force, matter will keep expanding in all directions. As this opposite force is yet to be discovered, we will assume that expansion will continue.
Setting the observation point on the Milky Way, as we look in every direction we are able to see that galaxies, stars, celestial bodies of any kind are moving away from one another, thus resulting in the redshift that has been observed. Those observations prove that, at least in our lifespan, those celestial bodies will keep moving away from one another therefore the redshift will stay.
We may think of this as the balloon model. If we inflate the balloon, it will expand making every point on its surface move away from the other, and unless we set an opposite force that balances the inflation, like releasing the mouth of the balloon, the balloon will keep inflating until, hopefully, it explodes. If we stop inflating the balloon, close the mouth and wait long enough, the air inside the balloon will cool down, and some will exit the balloon through the porous plastic, making the balloon loose shape and become smaller and smaller. Thus, to achieve this behavior we have to cut the inflating force by any means, and prove that the balloon boundary, the plastic is a porous material that allows air to move out. For this stage, we are assuming that the boundary of our universe is not porous thus it does not allow any matter to leave its boundary. We will get to that later.
Case 2: Two universes exist
In this situation, we have two coexistent universes at a certain moment in time, t1, defined by their centers Uc1 and Uc2, each before the big bang event (Img. 2), assuming that both universes would have a similar behavior, therefore both experiencing a big bang event, thus not necessarily at the same time.
We have assumed that the universe is limited and has a boundary, therefore, when our universe, Uc1 experiences a big bang event, it starts to expand, and its boundary starts to grow taking up space. A second universe, Uc2 is still in a pre-big bang stage, so when the boundary of Uc1 reaches the position of Uc2, it pushes Uc2 away. We have not thought of a porous boundary of any universe at this point, therefore, the pressure Pe1 that acts on the boundary of Uc1 when it reaches the location of Uc2 will move it away.
At a different moment in time, t=t3, Uc2 also has experienced a big bang event, and is expanding at a velocity Ve2 different from the expanding velocity of our universe, Ve1. The size of both universes might not be the same at the same moment in time as well as the pressure on their boundaries.
There is, nevertheless a touching point between the sphere boundary of each universe, Ut12. Depending on the differences of pressure on the boundary, one universe would move away the other or vice versa:
- If Pe1>Pe2, Uc1 will push Uc2 away
- If Pe2>Pe1 then Uc2 will push Uc1 away
- If Pe1=Pe2, both universes will push each other away from Ut12
If we, from the Milky Way, look at the space, assuming we could see the farthest point on Ub2, we will be still observing a redshift, as bodies inside Ub1 are moving away from one another due to the still lasting effect of the big bang, and all bodies inside Ub2 will appear as moving away too; Ub1 is pushing Ub2 away, and all bodies inside Ub2 are also moving away from each other, thus the overall result from our observation point “mw” will be the redshift we can observe right now.
Now, at a certain time (Img. 5), we assume that some event, some balance force, took place on Uc2 that made its Ve2 become negative, therefore Uc2 will collapse. If Uc2 were collapsing, the value of Pe2 would be lower than during the expansion time and by all means, Ub1 would keep pushing Ub2 away.
For our observer located on mw, the situation still appears the same. Even the bodies inside Ub2 are moving closer to one another, they are still moving away from Ub1, therefore moving away from mw, keeping the overall redshift present.
As we stated before, outside Uc1 and Uc2 there is the not universe, therefore, if we were to send a traveler from Uc1 into Uc2 to take a first hand look on Uc2, the only path that this traveler could follow is through Ut12, the single touching point between Ub1 and Ub2. Any other point on Ub1 we choose to cross will result in our traveler lost somewhere else in the not universe. But we have stated that the universe is limited with boundary, any universe, and Ub1 and Ub2 are pushing each other away, and they are not porous. Therefore, nothing could cross Ub1 nor Ub2, making traveling between Uc1 and Uc2 impossible, supposing we had the technology.
Also, when two bodies touch each other there is friction between them, and that friction could produce unexpected effects (e.g.: static electricity observed when rubbing a balloon on a woolen sweater). Therefore, the friction forces acting at Ut12 might produce a temporary hole on Ub1 and Ub2 at Ut12, making traveling from Uc1 to Uc2 possible. That hole would have a limited time window in which could be used to jump from Uc1 to Uc2. Artificially making that hole, if possible, would need high amounts of energy. We will get to this later too.
Case 3: An infinite number of universes exist on a plane (or 3D space)
For this case, we will assume that there are infinite universes located on a single plane (Img. 6). Each one with its big bang event taking place at some instant in time. Each i-universe with different Vei, Pei and size. Some of them already collapsing, some still expanding, and with touching points Utij between Ubi and Ubj.
We have located mw on Uc1 as our universe is still expanding. (On Img. 6, circles representing boundaries should be touching where they actually should, apologies for the drawing, but I understand you get the point).
Then, our observer located on mw would still see the celestial bodies inside Uc1 moving away, and assuming that such observer could see all universes, even Uc2 is collapsing, Ub1 would still keep pushing Ub2 away, therefore it will be seen as still moving away, regardless celestial bodies inside Uc2 are getting closer and closer. Same would apply for the rest of universes. Those that are expanding, will of course add to the overall redshift, those who are collapsing will subtract to the overall redshift. Even if all surrounding universes would be collapsing, inside Uc1, to the observer located on mw, will still be seeing as moving away from the observation point.
Now, if we set our observer inside Ub2, an universe in its collapsing stage, this observer will notice the celestial bodies inside Ub2 getting closer and closer as well as some bodies from universes Uc1, Uc3, Uc4 and Uc6. Those in Uc5 would appear getting closer as its space would be taking by the expanding universes Uc4, Uc6, Uc7, Uc8 and Uc9. The overall result would still be a redshift as there are more universes expanding than collapsing. In fact, unless the observer is inside a collapsing universe and the number of collapsing universes is greater than those expanding, there still will be a redshift.
In the case that the observer only can see what happens inside the universe he has the observation point in, the effect of the rest of the universes will be reduced, as the redshift/blueshift of the radiation will be limited to a certain location on the observed, reachable, sky.
To travel, for example, from Uc1 to Uc9, the optimal path would be using Ut12, Ut25 and then Ut59, as Uc2 and Uc5 are collapsing, considering that the technology of the ship used to travel is capable of circumventing the collapsing force of the universe the ship passes through.
Same applies if instead of N universes on a plane we have N (N→∞) universes on a 3D space.
As long as our observer is located on an universe that is expanding, even if all the rest of universes are collapsing, they will be moving away from the observer, thus the overall result would be a redshift, as long as the observation technology does not allow to see beyond the universe’s boundary.
After the bigbang event, a certain universe starts expansion. Let’s take as true that a certain instant in time, the expansion force is balanced by another force that makes the universe start collapsing over itself. Therefore having an expansion-implosion cycle as shown in Img. 7.
Thus, after a bigbang event BBe1, the universe starts to grow, Ve (the expansion velocity) is high and will decrease over time until the moment in which Ve=0 (Inversion time It). At this moment, the universe reaches its biggest size, afterwards the universe will start to collapse turning Ve into negative values that will increase over time until the universe returns to a stage similar to the pre-BBe1, that will produce, hopefully, a new bigbang event, BBe2 that will make the universe grow again, thus repeating the cycle.
Different universes will have different cycles, will reach different sizes, depending on the mass and energy accumulated inside their boundaries. Therefore, as we said before, even at the moment t=tx, if our observer is located on the universe i, Uci, which is collapsing, surrounding universes j and k are still expanding, so if the observer can see what happens in those universes, the result would show a redshift. While if the observer only can see what happens inside Ubi, the result would be a blueshift, every body is getting closer and closer to Uci.
Case 4: The boundary of the universe is not “rigid”
Until now, we have presumed that the boundary of each universe is rigid. We have not said so explicitly, but it could be inferred from the analysis of each previous case.
In such case, Ubi is rigid, the expansion/collapse of any universe would not affect its neighbors, other than bringing them closer or apart depending on the expansion/collapse of such universe. For that, there is a need of a certain force that ties universes together so there is still an Utij, touching point between two adjacent universes. If such force does not exist, once the universe reaches its biggest size, Usmax, and starts to collapse, the space before taken by that universe will be empty depending on the Pei, expansion pressure of the surrounding universes. That space among universes, “empty” space, could be called whatever, black matter, anti matter, red matter… we will get to that later. But it would be an unreachable space as at those points where the not universe is located, there is no friction points between two universes that can break a hole to pass through from one to another.
Let’s assume for a moment that the border of any said universe is soft instead of rigid, therefore, the expansion of a universe, if we inscribe a spherical universe inside a cube, and this universe has a rigid border, when the border reaches the cube, the universe either will not grow more, or will break the cube. On the other hand, if the universe shows a soft border (Img. 10), that will mean that the border of the universe will “adapt” in order to fill the whole space inside the cube.
As universes are not inscribed inside cubes, at least as far as we know, different universes will have not spherical shapes, but different shapes depending on the Pe of said universe and its neighbors.
In this soft boundary case, the Utxy, the touching point between an universe and a neighbor will not be a single point, friction will take place on a bigger surface thus allowing more probability of hole appearance, thus theoretically easing the process of traveling from one universe to another.
In this situation, only universes with high Pe will become spherical (Img. 11), Uc1 and Uc2 are presumed spherical, therefore Pe1>Pe3, Pe2>Pe3, Pe1>Pe4, Pe3>Pe4. In such situation, the probability of a hole at Utij increases, as it does the contact surface between two universes. Utij is not a single point but a complex surface, thus friction between two adjacent universes will increase.
If the value of Pe3 is very low compared to its neighbors, we will be facing a forced implosion event, namely, all the universes surrounding Uc3, those depicted and those not depicted in Img. 11, have a Pressure of Expansion Pei>>Pe3, even Uc3 is inside an expansion cycle of the wave, it would be forced to enter an implosion cycle due to Pe3 not being able to fight back the Pei of its neighbors.
This could cause a situation in which part of the collapsing universe gets teared off itself, filling any possible gap among the other universes, this Ou3, orphaned universe, does not have a center, susceptible of becoming a dense space due to pressure from surrounding universes. The amount of matter, the density, and the surrounding Pei will determine the actual status of Ou3, the orphaned universe.
Case 5: The boundary of the universe shows some permeability
The next step is allowing the universe boundary to have some permeability. Let’s think of it as the ability to open holes in the Utij surface and allow matter to cross through in both directions.
Let’s assign a width, Ubw, to the border of the universe, that has a certain density ρu. ρu is not constant as it depends on the matter filling the space, therefore Ubw should not be constant neither, though for now we will assume it is a constant width. Thus, instead of a physical surface border, now we assume a physical volume border, but this volume, besides soft, allows matter to flow in and out.
For the spherical universe situation, the touching point Ut12 becomes a merged volume, where matter from Uc1 and matter from Uc2 interact. At Ut12 neither universe has a high value of ρui as at the farthest part from the center the amount of matter is much less than in the inner universe. In Img. 14. we have supposed both universes are equal, Pe1=Pe2, Ubw1=Ubw2, Ve1=Ve2, so the merging of the boundaries only takes place at the boundary’s width.
A real situation would be that in which each universe has its own properties different from the other. Img. 15 shows a growing spherical universe with a great Pe1, blending a less strong universe with a lower Pe2. In such situation, Ut12 becomes a volume much bigger than in the previous case (Img. 14), and with Ubw1>Ubw2, Ub1 travels inside Ub2 extending away from Ut12. This will make traveling between Uc1 and Uc2 easier. A frontier volume would be easier to locate than a frontier surface or a frontier point. In this situation, the density of Ut12 would not be ρu1(d1), nor ρu2(d2), but a function of both ρut12=f(ρu1(d1),ρu2(d2)), though in any case, a density after all, instead of a physical barrier.
The width assigned to the boundary of a universe is not going to be constant, but a function, and this function is going to vary along the boundary itself, depending on the density of the universe and the densities of the surrounding universes. Lower densities will allow other borders to reach in farther thus enlarging the width of the boundary between two universes whose properties (Pei, Vei, ρui – Pej, Vej, ρuj) match the conditions to broaden the border of one of them, or maybe both. On other points of the border where other neighbor universe is in touch, its properties may cause the border to become thinner.
The wider the boundary, the easier the travel from one universe to the other. A wider boundary makes density merge smoother.
Though density decreases over distance, there might be singularity locations, places in space where density does not match the curve.
If such singularity occurs near the boundary, Ubj, then Uci will not reach farther into Ucj than the singularity occurrence ρuj,s2. But said singularity could help bend Uci at Utij in favor of Ucj. Locations where there is no occurrence of any singularity on the boundary between two universes are the best choices to cross through to travel from universe i to universe j.
Part 2, in progress